public administration reforms in pakistan

Less than three months after coming to power, Bhutto sent a clear message of who was in charge by compulsorily retiring approximately 1,300 civil service officers. 11 For a more detailed account of Bhutto’s administrative reforms, see Charles Kennedy, Bureaucracy in Pakistan (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1987). The CCBs mechanism should be used for channeling development activities. It is suggested that M&E activities must be planned to strengthened around the following four priority areas. It is therefore conceivable that a constituency of politicians could be created to support the establishment of an effective and transparent merit-based appointments system. Administrative reforms 1. The Army controls all state institutions—civil service, foreign policy, economic policy, intelligence agencies, judiciary and the legislature. There are several ways in which greater public support could be generated for civil service reform. the public sector management agenda, consisting of actions to make markets competitive and supporting improvements in public administration, the development of proper institutional and legal frameworks, strengthening audit functions to improve resource allocation while making embezzlement more easily detected, procurement reforms, while reducing costs will make fraud more difficult to perpetrate, civil service reforms, while improving procedures for recruitment and promotion will build capacity and help reduce patronage and nepotism. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto exploited this weakness after coming to power in 1971 and set out to redress the power imbalance between the elected and unelected institutions of the state. For example, a recurring theme in the interviews regarding civil service reform was the necessity of having specific reforms personally backed by the president, or in some cases the prime minister, if they were to have any chance of moving through the system and being implemented. However, due to the success of worldwide tax reforms, the direction of tax policy and administration in the country also changed from narrow to a liberal approach. At the provincial level, this responsibility lies . 3 This paper is based primarily on information collected through interviews conducted in Pakistan with approximately 60 senior civil servants, politicians, academics, journalists and bilateral and multilateral donor representatives. A state-of-the-art, one-stop resource, Public Administration in South Asia: India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan examines public administration issues and advances in the Indian subcontinent. Continuing to ignore the problem will ensure that large amounts of donor development aid currently being committed to Pakistan will do more damage than good by fueling corruption rather than development. The politicization of the bureaucracy as a result of Bhutto’s administrative reforms did have the positive result of giving elected representatives more influence over unelected institutions. The analysis has indicated the following areas need to be improved: The following important deficiencies are proposed to be addressed: The following measures are planned to improve timeliness and dissemination. Another serious problem affecting recruitment and retention at the officer grades is the compression of salary scales over time. He tinkered with the system to make sure the bureaucracy became completely docile and pliable. © Copyright 2018, Journal of International Affairs. Almost every day the structure of Good Governance go under dissection, some of the salient features of good governance however are mended back to its original place but many remain unattended. When the children in the schools start receiving better facilities, food support and health care, it affects every household. In the late ‘70s and early ‘80s Zia initially wanted to restore some of the guarantees to the bureaucracy…When Zia realized that he’d be tying his own hands by making the bureaucracy more independent he stopped pushing to restore constitutional protection. Nationalism, Democracy and Development: State and Politics in India, (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997). 22 See, for example, Massoud Ansari, “The Militarisation of Pakistan,” Newsline (Karachi), October 2004. Over the course of the past sixty years there have been more than twenty studies on administrative reform prepared by various government committees or commissions (including six since 1996), that have clearly identified the most serious problems.8 Instead, the lack of progress is due primarily to political factors and ineffective political strategies for pushing through reforms. Now you can’t get promotions or good postings without political support. In the Federal Services, Economic Services and other Services would also be separated. For an institution that has historically had considerable public support, this growing anti-military sentiment seems to have convinced the current army leadership that its interests would be better served by a role behind the scenes rather than by taking the brunt of public criticism in a front and center role. Both the junior and senior grades fear changes to the current generous pension scheme for government employees. Reforms of police and introduction of the jury system and other judicial reforms will prevent police excesses and ensure transparency and participation. It has created a class of ‘Brahmins’ or mandarins, unrivalled in its snobbery and arrogance, insulated from life of the people and incapable of identifying itself with them.10. 32 Former finance secretary, interview by author, Islamabad, 15 December 2005. Instead, much more attention needs to be given to creating positive incentives for civil servants to support rather than oppose reforms.39. But once in power, they want to stay. The focus of politics is destroying the government or the opposition. The main aim of the meeting was to conceptualise and develop a framework for the reform of public administration in developing Commonwealth member countries. In addition to being responsible for district administration and manning the powerful positions of district commissioners (DC), DMG members also dominated most of the senior positions in the civil service. The capacity of the training institutions to deliver training to local governments will be geared up to meet new challenges. 14 The NCGR report noted: “Pressures and compulsions from the political leadership in power push the ambitious Civil Servants into taking partisan positions favoring the ruling party rather than adopt a neutral stance.” National Commission for Government Reforms, 2. The frequent misuse of this influence, however, has also resulted in the politicization of the civil service to such an extent that it has all but destroyed the concept of a neutral and competent civil service.14 Many of the senior government officials interviewed during my field research pointed to the urgent need to address this problem. Concrete actions recommended improving governance are the need of the hour. Strengthen the capacity of Planning Commission (Projects Wing), Provincial P&DDs, and M&E Cells of line ministries on M&E including expanding the use of monitoring software, training staff involved in M&E at the federal, provincial and local level; and standardizing project documents. Starting with the removal of the constitutional protection of the civil service by Bhutto in 1973, however, the perception was that all three of these incentives had been eroded. providing a legal basis for judicial, policy and administrative reforms, improving efficiency, timeliness and effectiveness in Judicial and Police Service, supporting greater equity and accessibility in justice services for the vulnerable poor, improving predictability and consistency between fiscal and human resource allocation and the mandates of reformed judicial and police institutions at federal, province and local government levels. The rapid politicization of the civil service quickly followed. The military now gets much better governance and administrative training than the civilian bureaucracy. The record is less clear in the longer term, however, as military governments are pressured into accommodating a broader spectrum of political interests and responding to domestic and international pressures to legitimize and democratize their governments. Recruiting, Training and Retaining “The Best and the Brightest”. These nations have the largest public administration programs in South Asia, yet existing knowledge on them is fragmented at best. So the scientific formula is no democracy no governance. The government should focus on the following areas: Effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system are essential to managing for development outcomes. Kennedy, 188. Public administration reform helps governments to achieve their economic and social aims by enhancing the efficiency and focus of government. See also Saeed Shafqat, “Pakistani Bureaucracy: Crisis of Governance and Prospects of Reform,” Pakistan Development Review 38, no. The Politics of Civil Service Reform in Pakistan. Pakistan is also influenced by NPM as reforms in public sector have been developed and implemented to some extent with weak claims of improved performance. Shahid Javed Burki has convincingly argued that Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s attempts to undermine the power of the civil service had the unintended consequence of contributing to his downfall by weakening the very institution that subsequently needed to deliver services to the people.43 Parallels could be drawn with current ambitious plans to use foreign aid to significantly expand the delivery of services by the government, but with inadequate attention being given to addressing the declining capacity of the civil service to manage this expansion. For more details regarding the formation of the DMG, see Kennedy, 90-93. 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