basic political terminology

If there are three seats to be won in an election then in theory a quota of 33.3% of the vote (Hare) is needed to win every seat. Information that is false or misleading deliberately disseminated for strategic gain. A variant of preferential voting eliminating the chances of minority candidates winning when too many mainstream candidates run against each other. A term to describe the politically and socially insular community of Washington DC. I'm CEO of for ‘famous case’. free market economic system abused to the degree where some business people have become successful due to their relationships with government. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Practised in ancient Greece and (to some degree) in some cantons of Switzerland and the New England states of America. For a non-national, even someone speaking at a high level of fluency, this is a minefield with no margin for error! The shortfall in any one year of a nation’s income as compared to its expenditure / the total unpaid accumulated debt of the government over time. In other words, once voted in they don’t have to carry out ANY of it!eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'myenglishteacher_eu-leader-4','ezslot_19',679,'0','0'])); A common exercise in schools is to debate and then write their own Manifestos, trying to think what obstacles might arise or who might try to stop you. open or contested convention. Hustings: The political activities, meetings and speeches that happen before an election. Appropriation An act of Congress that enables Federal agencies to spend money for specific purposes. View Basic Political Terminology from ENGLISH LA AP LITERAT at New Century Tech Demo High Sch. At the time, ‘bully’ had the positive meaning of superb or wonderful. A type of political speech where a campaigner either does, or is alleged to, put code words in his / her speech to imply more than what is said on its face. The excess votes a candidate at the top of the ballot paper will get because of those voters who don’t bother to consider their decision but simply just tick the first box in sight. (I am a Roman Citizen). government!) Politics are confusing, scary, overwhelming, intimidating. This dictionary provides the user with the basic vocabulary used in the fields of government and politics, especially in the United Kingdom, the European Union and the United States, and also contains some more informal terms used in the media. begin another 5 years of a democratically elected Government, here’s hoping it was the Party you wanted! The words used are so specific they cannot be changed without sounding ‘odd’ to a native Briton. How to respond to How Are You? Abused: Taken advantage of, hurt. Marxist term now used to describe middle class professionals living a relatively luxurious life style. Australian citizens of at least 18 yrs are allowed (and compelled) to enrol. Grass roots: Ordinary people in a society, as opposed to those who are in power. Please e-mail any comments or suggestions to Dr. Johnson at . 12 people, each one is head of a major Department, therefore they are all Ministers. and is still being written! Named in retrospect after the horrors of the first world war. So far so good!eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'myenglishteacher_eu-leader-3','ezslot_18',678,'0','0'])); The MANIFESTO is a controversial subject in Britain. This is the area represented by one person (voted for in the election) in Parliament. Most of us in the business world use emails as the main, and in some cases the only, means of written communication. An act by a member of a party to enhance his/her chances of being chosen as a candidate in an upcoming election by arranging, and paying membership fees, for a suitably large number of people, who may or may not have any interest in politics, to join the party in the relevant electorate/branch for no other reason than to support that member. Start studying Basic Political Terminology. Meetings play a very big part in the business world. As compared to democratically maintained law, common law is judge maintained and modified law and is valid unless it conflicts with statute law. A suggested electoral system where votes are somehow weighted according to the degree of knowledge of the voter. To him, the concept of natural laws and basic human rights was nothing more than “nonsense on stilts”. If you work closely with lawyers in your daily role, chances are you’ve been stumped by a legal term a time or two. A person who accepts, with little critical thought, the conventional or orthodox attitudes of the day. The name for proposed legislation entered into the house / houses of parliament to be debated upon for approval. The standardized, non-specific parts of editorials, presentations, contracts or emails traditionally made and expected, in addition to the specific. If country A can produce both apples and oranges cheaper than country B, with apples significantly cheaper, it is more efficient for it to concentrate on growing and exporting only apples while importing oranges, even though the oranges imported would not be as cheap as those if home grown. The concept of moral obligation and binding duty. As opposed to an “open list” system where voters have the choice of either above-the-line or below-the-line voting where the voter either gives only one tick, or individually indicates his/her particular preferences. To serve and perform menial tasks for an entity, or to be induced by pragmatism to endorse a belief, person or organisation that, in reality, one does not fully support. e.g. There was Party called the Monster Raving Loony Party, a Party that wore funny clothes and didn’t take themselves seriously, they won surprise elections and ended up in Parliament! the sea, but is also used when a big project or campaign is started. Each PARTY sets out its ‘MANIFESTO’, which is effectively a list of things they promise to do if they are voted for and GET INTO POWER. (TBH full form) on Facebook, Instagram, Texting, Subject and Predicate. or trust your views. That which teaches us to govern ourselves.”      Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. In Australia, it is a proposal ratified by the Governor General and at least one house of parliament, and then approved in a referendum by a 'double majority': a national majority of voters in the States and Territories; and a majority of voters in a majority of the States. Eg. Rules, regulations, by-laws, ordinances etc made by a government official under the authority of a specific act of parliament which sets out the broad purpose of what is desired, but delegates to that official’s office, the authority to create the minutia, the delegated legislation, necessary. 9 basic political terminology pdf Normal PDF 354 8. Excluding policy decisions made by people’s elected representatives, where it is deemed electoral popular support authorises the office holder to be unrestrained in their decision making as long as it is within the law, all civil / public servants, from the Prime Minister down can be challenged in court (as long as the plaintiff has standing) on the “reasonableness” of their administrative actions or even on their failure to act. The term Political Theory as used in the contemporary sense, may mean the scientific theory, the positivist theory, or the behavioral theory. From the French ‘diriger’ to direct. Israel was unable to become a party to the additional Protocols because political terminology had intruded into … If they do say how they will do it and it sounds plausible they are more likely to be voted for. In other words, this elected person should do everything they can to take the problems and queries of the people in the constituency to Parliament to be discussed and hopefully changed. A situation in a country when a government agency, such as a branch of the armed forces, an intelligence agency, police, or a bureaucratic department, acts (conspiratorially or overtly) independently of civilian democratic leadership. Constituency: Areas of the UK. We vote for them, they are given a salary from public taxes and we expect them to behave in a certain way. The power of the government to claim private property. OK, the Parties are now ready to LAUNCH their campaigns, time is ticking on. Whereas a nation’s enacted laws are deemed to protect people from the harmful deeds of their fellow citizens, a B.o.R is deemed to protect the citizenry from the excesses of their rulers. the American Electoral College to choose the President. Elected Members of Parliament are paid to serve the public. The Queen (as head of Parliament, although her role is mainly symbolic), the HOUSE OF LORDS, and the HOUSE OF COMMONS, are part of Parliament. An impractical suggestion that highlights the short sightedness of the theorist advocating a problem’s solution which, however, will not in work in practice, or be politically lethal for the party proposing it. This is hard, so here is a phrase to help. Organic matter used as fuel, such as wood for heating and electricity generation. To run something: To be in charge of something, leader, owner. Looking for most commonly used business English idioms and phrases? see ‘delegated legislation’. The pre-Civil War slave states of America united to form the Confederated States of America to maintain states’ rights. A manipulative leader who gains popularity by appealing to prejudice and basic instincts. Rather than unfairly distributing the final seats to the next more successful parties albeit still below a quota (and thus at a cheaper ‘price’), a complex algorithm is applied to work out a lower new quota of votes, where all seats are distributed for the same number of votes, with no party having a new quota remaining. Term possibly used to disguise the fact that approximately half of all voters in SMV systems end up electing nobody. Popular British 19th century working class movement advocating electoral reform. An office, place or high order which gives one the opportunity to propagate one’s views. Example: An MP as a Part of Parliamentary standing committee for IT while also being associated with business in the Information and Broadcasting sector. France, Sweden, South Korea and New Zealand all have unicameral governments. Polling station: The local hall or office where people go to vote. In such decisions, the selected candidates would get one quarter of a vote each, or half a vote, or where only one candidate received the vote, the whole vote. Here you are: 15 business English expressions with meanings and examples just for you! Named after their Peoples’ Charter of six demands: universal male suffrage, equal electoral districts, secret ballot, no qualifications to enter parliament, pay for MPs and annual elections. Aka Charter of Rights or Declaration of Rights. Where they exist, some examples would be a constitution upon which the supreme court could review the validity of laws or executive decisions, recall elections for politicians and / or judges, veto power over legislation held by the chief executive, and citizens’ initiated referenda. A BIG List of Prefixes and Suffixes and Their Meanings, 199 Phrases for Saying Thank You in Any Situation ✅. Government concepts are essential pdf to your success on the AP U. Cleavage (politics) Client politics; Clientelism; Co-option; Coattail effect; Code word (figure of speech) Comeback (publicity) Common front; Community wealth building; Comrade; Concession (politics) Confidence and supply; Consensus government; Contingent sovereignty; Continuismo; Conviction politics; Cordon sanitaire (politics) Craxism; Crony capitalism; Crony-capitalism index Otherwise known as the unthinking vote. In the US it is ratification by either two-thirds of both the Senate and H.O.R., or three quarters of the state governments. You wouldn’t launch a, meeting but you might launch an anti-smoking campaign. As exists in Switzerland and some states of the USA, if a petition for a certain proposition can raise a specific number of signatures, then the legislature is compelled to put it to the people at a referendum and then to enact it in law if passed. He did not know political terminology in Finnish and used mostly English when meeting with visiting Finnish Communists. Election fever! Government by the people in fact rather than merely in principle. ‘Caesar’s wife must be above suspicion.’ The maxim that family or close associates of a prominent pubic figure must go to extra lengths to keep themselves above suspicion of wrongdoing. Political terms that are not well understood get tossed around on the political stage. That segment of public law that is used to challenge the decisions of government officials and / or delegated legislation. The leverage a small party in the legislature possesses, in being able to give, or hold back, voting support to a large, albeit still minority party, to allow it to have a majority on a vote. When you login first time using a Social Login button, we collect your account public profile information shared by Social Login provider, based on your privacy settings. Fr. Direct government control of a country's economic and social institutions. An unexpected, somewhat unknown candidate with little public exposure who has potential to win an election against established candidates. An auxiliary part of common law where the courts not only have authority to modify existing common law to adapt to modern times, but in fact have the power to create original law, overriding  existing common law, in circumstances where it is deemed that without it, “unconscionable” conduct would occur. Derived from a fable about a group of mice who decide the best way to be warned when the cat is near is for someone to place a bell around its neck, only to find there are no volunteers to perform that task. By dawn the next day all votes are counted, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland wakes up to begin another 5 years of a democratically elected Government, here’s hoping it was the Party you wanted! Adjective to describe a situation where the normally opposing political parties come together to agree on an initiative. Football analogy to describe a tactic of questionable legitimacy whereby the executive and / or the legislature manufacture a process whereby an action can be claimed to be legal even though, prima facie, it violates the tenets and text of the constitution. A diplomatic agreement that does not have the same binding force as a treaty. Geographical areas used as a criterion for political representation. A place of work where the union has arranged that the employer will only employ those who are its members. A political body that exercises authority over a nation or state and has the power to make and enforce laws. In Ireland university graduates get to elect six university seats as well as exercising a normal vote shared by all other citizens. If approved at all stages it then becomes an act and thus law. A small country economically dependent on a single agrarian export commodity (traditionally a banana exporting, maritime state of the West Indies or Central America), with a corrupt government. Candidates: People who put themselves forward to be voted for in an Election. espionage, a third party intermediary for two spies / agents to communicate with each other. Not a law but a government rule or regulation. The power to do something or hold an office by virtue of the fact that one holds an earlier office. Junior Minister: An assistant in the leadership of a Department. A vote that the presiding officer of decision-making body, who normally does not vote so as to give an impression of impartiality, has the option to exercise when it would have an effect. whilst the people working in them are, Government! Temporary or permanent suspension of hostilities in war by mutual agreement. To track down a political candidate to a public event and get in a position to ask him/her questions on issues they would rather not talk about, and to ask follow-up questions if answers are evasive. The concept of collective, rather than individual, ownership of all the nation’s assets, as well as the duty by those able, to create and / or manage those assets. You vote for a local CANDIDATE. In this article, we outline—in plain English—the most common legal terms that all non-lawyers should know, broken out by industry, so that you can be more effective in your job. Technically two parties coming together. reek for gathering place or assembly. Sadly, it doesn’t always work as we would hope. Assistant Minority Leader A derogatory Chinese term to describe what the speaker sees as a naïve white liberal advocating modern ideologies such as peace, empathy and equality in a virtue signalling manner. She has worked as an illustrator for a number of years also living on the Côte d’Azur, but now concentrates more fully on teaching English as a foreign language and writing articles on a regular basis for AnglaisPoitiers. That part of government which executes  the law of the land, as compared to the legislature which creates and maintains the law. The Australian electorate of Eden-Monaro has voted in a government MP at every election since 1972. Also a concept used in some parliamentary votes where a simple majority of all members present is not enough. Edit. Choosing the right words and the right grammar can go a long way to removing some of the unpleasantness of the message we have to deliver. health insurance companies on average charge women higher rates than men because statistics show women seek medical help more often. A suddenly vacated Senate seat filled not by an election but by State government appointment. It’s an interesting exercise and surprisingly hard! A member of communist party machine; derogatory term for a political party zealot. Aka serial migration. So far so good! The anti-smoking campaign is. Prominent in the 60’s with college students and other counter-culture movements. Fr. For many students studying Business English and practising their business email writing skills is an important part of their course. Electorates can also be multiple member and sometimes the term can refer to the voting public in general. Whereas progressives wants change. A pejorative term to describe outsiders taking advantage of a situation where others would normally be expected to benefit. Country house retreat of the American president. 5 Common ANGRY Synonyms. With the advent of legislation limiting the amount an entity can donate to a political candidate,  political campaigns have to put more emphasis on the number of donors solicited rather than a limited number of wealthy donors who are often directly approached by the candidate him / her self. Often regarded as less than a 10% margin ie requiring a swing of 5% or less, though very dependent on prevailing political conditions. Derived from Interstate Highway 495 which circumnavigates Washington forming a “belt”. The Queen gets the ball rolling when she DISSOLVES the current parliament (she doesn’t stop it, cease it, remove it or cancel it, she dissolves it!) NOT the Departments and the Civil Service. A.k.a. This page is under construction. Technically, a voter who is successful in helping to get his preferred candidate elected. Justification used by UK Prime Minister Lord Palmerston in 1850 when blockading Athens to ensure a British citizen there was compensated for the property damage inflicted by a violent Greek mob. An alarming thought, although in the case of a national emergency, Parliament would, things they promise to do if they are voted for and. Raving Loony Party, a Party that wore funny clothes and didn’t take themselves seriously. During meetings, important decisions are made, people are promoted, demoted, hired or even fired! An alarming thought, although in the case of a national emergency, Parliament would BE RECALLED. In the USA those who choose to vote must repeatedly enrol for every election. Derived from the Middle Ages French term of abuse for religious Normans who would frequently use the term “By God”. ‘campaigning’ is to try to persuade people to vote for you or your Party. a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i  j  k   l  m  n  o  p  q  r  s  t  u  v  w  y z. Security Council terminology in Sahara resolutions is evolving towards terms compatibile with the requirements for a political settlement. “by virtue of one’s office”. Caesar divorced his wife Pompeia after it was suspected, but not proven, that she aided a third party to commit the crime of sacrilege. Less-than-subtle political propaganda disseminated through the media and performing arts. The Prime Minister of the UK David Cameron has CALLED a General Election: The UK is currently HOLDING an Election. There is often information about politicians or elections in the news, so understanding politics vocabulary will help you understand the news. Cabinet Minister: A person belonging to the cabinet. Television, radio, Current Affairs and News Programs are flooded with election news. A reference to the tragic 1978 mass suicide in Jonestown, Guyana where 913 cult followers of Rev. However, just to make things complicated, the, For this brief time, now, Britain has no government. This usually happens automatically when you pay taxes in the UK. The local candidates and the Party Leaders have put forward their, resident in the UK or British National is entitled to vote, but in order to do so you need to be on the, The day arrives and local vilage halls or sometimes school rooms are turned into, votes are counted, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland wakes up to. However, they don’t have to say HOW they, would do this. Secondly, both houses of Parliament are dissolved at the time of the election, rather than normal situation where the Senate only dissolves at the end of its set term, which can mean that it can be as much as eleven months after a normal election before the new Senators take their seats. A measurement of inflation by comparing, at regular intervals, the price (taking weighting into account) of a set of basic consumer goods and services purchased by households. Opposite to the inquisitorial system where a judge or panel of judges call evidence and interrogate witnesses, as exists in many European countries. Any Party can write anything in their Manifestos. A method of secret voting, normally in a written form. Nice to meet you! Power can take many forms, from brute force to articulate persuasion. Political Terms used in the United States. The pre-requisite to voting. It is a fete or happy gathering of people. In our first blog post on diplomatic / polite expressions in English – A Practical Guide to Diplomatic English in a Business Environment , we looked at several techniques for softening the message (I’m afraid, so sorry, to be honest, unfortunately, with all respect ) or the tone of our language in English. Formal and Informal Email Phrases – from Greetings to Closing Phrases! Every resident in the UK or British National is entitled to vote, but in order to do so you need to be on the ‘Electoral Register’. The reason for this is that power would be in transition due to an election being due or being called suddenly due to the success of a vote of no confidence, or some other situation where legitimate democratic government has to be restored. Go over some of the foundational concepts of political science by checking out this set of flashcards. All of them could say they were working, although her role is mainly symbolic), the, The Prime Minister of the UK David Cameron has, All very specific terminology and phrasing. The government and social system that was swept away by the French Revolution. 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The CANDIDATE hopes to work for the CONSTITUENTS  in their CONSTITUENCY! A member of Parliament (government or opposition) who is not in a leadership role in their party but merely sits literally on the back bench. What does it mean? A situation in American primary presidential election campaigns where no candidate, by the time of the convention after the final primary election, has accrued a majority of delegates. Jim Jones drank grape flavoured, but poison laced, Kool-Aid. Originally used to identify a geographical area sealed off to isolate infectious diseases, but now also used to identify the isolation of extremist political parties by other parties not dealing with them in regards to coalitions, voting preferences or any other communications or benefits. The ‘cronies’ of politicians receive favouritism in legal permits, government grants, tax breaks, licences and other forms of state intervention. A vote taken in Parliament. uncompromising and difficult! The tendency to process and analyse information in alignment with one’s own pre-existing beliefs and values. In multi-member electorates, each voter having the same number of votes as the number of vacant seats (must tick off [say] three names). Like how only dogs can hear the dog whistle, only the target political audience can comprehend the real meaning of the innocuous words spoken by the politician. A bellwether is a ram with a bell attached to indicate to the farmer where the flock is when not in sight. To court or curry favour for political or other advantage. In modern times the most artful in this practice would be the government of North Korea. A voted Member of Parliament, When there are scandals in the news involving MPs, the people in the area they represent, (the constituents) feel let down and betrayed. Sometimes the CV is the only vote the officer has (Speaker of UK House of Commons, President of US Senate), but otherwise it is in addition to his/her normal vote. The American Vice President is, ex officio, the President of the Senate. A type of block voting but where the voter can choose, from the list of (for example) ten candidates running for four seats, his preferred four, or just two or even one. Shadow Prime Minister: The leader of the Party in Opposition (second best party!). Derogatory term for a politician who panics easily and shows signs of caving when newer, creative, or more ideological policies their party advocates start to come under criticism. Questionable practice in Australian parliaments where some of the allocated time in ‘Question Time’ is used for back bench MPs to ask their own leaders prearranged softball questions. An economic system based on the recognition of private property rights, where prices are dictated by supply and demand, and where the means of production and distribution of goods and services derive from privately owned resources, or capital, operating within an unregulated market. This glossary focuses on political terminology. One would be, metaphorical speaking, inside or outside the Beltway. There is no value’s. Any major unauthorized edits will be reverted. A state or society ruled by men where moral authority and control of property may also be exclusively in the hands of males. The winner is not necessarily the first or second highest delegate holder but can also be a compromise candidate, as happened in the 1924 Democratic convention. see also Casual Vacancy. A wasteful government financed infrastructure developed at a cost much greater than its value, undertaken for local or political gain. Derived from original 1892 American Press Association offices which happened to be housed next to a sheet-iron processing plant, and third rate, filler, news articles issued became known as B. The minister then answers directly or, within a specific time, provides a written response, which usually is also published online. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'myenglishteacher_eu-leader-2','ezslot_17',680,'0','0'])); This is an ENORMOUS responsibility. In espionage, a third party intermediary for two spies / agents to communicate with each other. Wells novel, The Time Machine. They vote on a special form and mail it in. In the political terminology of the Soviet Union, these were "countries moving along the socialist road of development" as opposed to the more advanced "countries of developed socialism", which were mostly located in Eastern Europe, but also included Vietnam and Cuba. Opposition advocating free trade as an alternative, from such theorists as Adam Smith, David Hume and David Ricardo, as well as the Anti-Corn Law League, eventually led to their abolition, but unfortunately not before the laws’ exacerbating effects upon the Irish Famine.

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