puerto rico area

[10] The unincorporated territory's total population is approximately 3.2 million, which is more than 20 U.S. states. ", Walsh (2013) "In each of the last six years, Puerto Rico sold hundreds of millions of dollars of new bonds just to meet payments on its older, outstanding bonds – a red flag. Early Dutch, French, Italian, and Chinese immigrants influenced not only the culture but Puerto Rican cooking as well. 2 ("The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States ..."). El Yunque National Forest, a tropical rainforest, is home to the majority (13 of 16) of species of Coquí. The Coquí is viewed as an ecological menace in Hawaii where its song of co kee co kee is found to be an irritant by many. In early July 2017 for example, the PREPA power authority was effectively bankrupt after defaulting in a plan to restructure $9 billion in bond debt; the agency planned to seek Court protection. Diego de Torres Vargas was allowed to circumvent this strict prohibition for three reasons: he was a priest, he came from a prosperous Spanish family, and his father was a Sergeant Major in the Spanish Army, who died while defending Puerto Rico from an invasion by the Dutch armada. Pueblo v. Tribunal Superior, 92 D.P.R. At the local level, Puerto Rico established by law that the international relations which states and territories are allowed to engage must be handled by the Department of State of Puerto Rico, an executive department, headed by the secretary of state of Puerto Rico, who also serves as the unincorporated territory's lieutenant governor. The first table below shows the most populated cities in Puerto Rico with the area codes listed next to them. The people surveyed by Pew consisted of Puerto Ricans living in the 50 states and DC and may not be indicative of those living in the Commonwealth. [280], In terms of protocol, the governor, together with the Puerto Rico Office of Management and Budget (OGP in Spanish), formulates the budget he believes is required to operate all government branches for the ensuing fiscal year. As those who leave tend to be better educated than those who remain, this accentuates the drain on Puerto Rico's economy. [126] The average yearly precipitation is 66 in (1,676 mm). The model capitalizes on the diversity of ecological niches in Puerto Rican forests and native disturbance regimes to formulate practices uniquely suited to the forests of the territory. [336] Consequently, practitioners of this style have earned participation in international teams, including Orlando "El Gato" Meléndez, who became the first Puerto Rican born athlete to play for the Harlem Globetrotters. They subsisted by hunting and fishing, done generally by men, as well as by the women's gathering and processing of indigenous cassava root and fruit. If vetoed, the legislature can then either refer it back with amendments for the governor's approval, or approve it without the governor's consent by two-thirds of the bodies of each chamber.[281]. Basic ingredients include grains and legumes, herbs and spices, starchy tropical tubers, vegetables, meat and poultry, seafood and shellfish, and fruits. The rivers in the north of the island are bigger and with higher flow capacity than those of the south. These seismic events, along with landslides, represent some of the most dangerous geologic hazards in the island and in the northeastern Caribbean. This means Puerto Rico has the second highest life expectancy in the United States, if territories are taken into account.[159]. In 1950, the U.S. Congress granted Puerto Ricans the right to organize a constitutional convention via a referendum that gave them the option of voting their preference, "yes" or "no", on a proposed U.S. law that would organize Puerto Rico as a "commonwealth" that would continue United States sovereignty over Puerto Rico and its people. Area Codes Search Notes. Of these five, only Culebra and Vieques are inhabited year-round. After Collazo served 29 years in a federal prison, President Jimmy Carter commuted his sentence to times served and he was released in 1979. 1–3", Rules of the House of Representatives. Puerto Rico, oficialmente el Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, es uno de los territorios no incorporados de los Estados Unidos y uno de los dos estados libres asociados con estatus de autogobierno de los Estados Unidos de América. Over the past fifty years, significant writers include Ed Vega (Omaha Bigelow), Miguel Piñero (Short Eyes), Piri Thomas (Down These Mean Streets), Giannina Braschi (Yo-Yo Boing! The Taínos also grew varieties of beans and some maize/corn, but maize was not as dominant in their cooking as it was for the peoples living on the mainland of Mesoamerica. The movement was discovered, and Governor Miguel de la Torre had its members imprisoned or exiled. Learn more at Recomendado por Rodrick Miller. This memorandum directs all federal departments, agencies, and officials to treat Puerto Rico administratively as if it were a state, insofar as doing so would not disrupt federal programs or operations. This includes retired personnel. It is also home to 50 bird species, including the critically endangered Puerto Rican amazon. "[297] Ultimately, the report concluded that "[the] effects of modifying the application of the Jones Act for Puerto Rico are highly uncertain" for both Puerto Rico and the United States, particularly for the U.S. shipping industry and the military preparedness of the United States. The local government of Puerto Rico has requested several times to the U.S. Congress to exclude Puerto Rico from the Jones Act restrictions without success. On May 21, 1948, a bill was introduced before the Puerto Rican Senate which would restrain the rights of the independence and Nationalist movements on the island. The official languages[174] of the executive branch of government of Puerto Rico[175] are Spanish and English, with Spanish being the primary language. The legislative branch consists of a bicameral legislature called the Legislative Assembly, made up of a Senate as its upper chamber and a House of Representatives as its lower chamber. [155] Another genetic study from 2007, claimed that "the average genomewide individual (ie. water: 145 sq km. By the time independence movements in the larger Spanish colonies gained success, new waves of loyal creole immigrants began to arrive in Puerto Rico, helping to tilt the island's political balance toward the Crown. The 2000 United States Census included a racial self-identification question in Puerto Rico. [266], The Commonwealth had been defaulting on many debts, including bonds, since 2015. [300] According to the 2000 Census, 60.0% of the population attained a high school degree or higher level of education, and 18.3% has a bachelor's degree or higher. From the large city of San Juan to the beach city of Fajardo, there are a number of beautiful places to locate yourself in Puerto Rico. Universidad Albizu. Under Puerto Rico Law, these ballots are not considered cast votes and are therefore not reflected in the final tally. Since then, it has won more than 30 medals in international competitions, including gold in three FIBA Americas Championships and the 1994 Goodwill Games August 8, 2004, became a landmark date for the team when it became the first team to defeat the United States in an Olympic tournament since the integration of National Basketball Association players. Although Puerto Rico has since followed the federal example of transferring criminal and civil procedure from statutory law to rules promulgated by the judiciary, several portions of its criminal law still reflect the influence of the California Penal Code. Puerto Rico is as safe and unsafe as any other state in the Union, true areas to avoid are there, however, overall it is an extremely safe destination. [42] An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", which was dated to around 2000 BC. The United States added English-language influence, the university system and the adoption of some holidays and practices. When a project proposal suggested that the old Carmelite Convent in San Juan be demolished to erect a new hotel, the Institute had the building declared as a historic building, and then asked that it be converted to a hotel in a renewed facility. While the constitution establishes that the request must be submitted "at the beginning of each regular session", the request is typically submitted during the first week of May as the regular sessions of the legislature begin in January and it would be impractical to submit a request so far in advance. [44] The natives lived in small villages, each led by a cacique. Fernandez is currently developing cutting edge forestry methods known as the "Borincano Model". ', Topic 903 – Federal Employment Tax in Puerto Rico, "Reuters, 'Puerto Rico hopes to gain from U.S. healthcare reform', 24 September 2009", "The Heritage Foundation, 11 March 2009. The Arcaico and Igneri co-existed on the island between the 4th and 10th centuries. Gentry, A.H. (1995) Diversity and floristic composition of neotropical dry forests. As of 2015[update], medical care in Puerto Rico had been heavily impacted by emigration of doctors to the mainland and underfunding of the Medicare and Medicaid programs which serve 60% of the island's population. Puerto Rico's sole congressional representation is through one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner. On November 1, 1950, Puerto Rican nationalists from New York City, Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo, attempted to assassinate President Harry S. Truman at his temporary residence of Blair House. Another important peak is El Yunque, one of the highest in the Sierra de Luquillo at the El Yunque National Forest, with an elevation of 3,494 ft (1,065 m).[117]. [317] It is a blend of wood and masonry, incorporating architectural elements of other styles, from Classical revival and Spanish Revival to Victorian.[318]. English is the primary language of less than 10% of the population. Slavers, which had made but few stops on the island before, began selling more enslaved Africans to growing sugar and coffee plantations. [266] It is essential for Puerto Rico to reach restructuring deals to avoid a bankruptcy-like process under PROMESA. 843 (1975). The temperature in the south is usually a few degrees higher than those in the north and temperatures in the central interior mountains are always cooler than those on the rest of the island. The most recognizable endemic species and a symbol of Puerto Rican pride are the Coquís (Eleutherodactylus spp. Each municipality has a mayor and a municipal legislature elected for a 4-year term. Much of Puerto Rican culture centers on the influence of music and has been shaped by other cultures combining with local and traditional rhythms. Area Codes Search Notes. Part of his strategy called for the acquisition of colonies in the Caribbean, which would serve as coaling and naval stations. The critical aspects come from the sale of bonds, which comprise 7% of the consolidated budget – a ratio that increased annually due to the government's inability to prepare a balanced budget in addition to being incapable of generating enough income to cover all its expenses. He then occupied the port and attacked the city while the population hurried for shelter behind the Morro's moat and high battlements. These parliamentary and constitutional reforms were in force from 1810 to 1814, and again from 1820 to 1823. Each municipality has a mayor and a municipal legislature elected for a four-year term. Today's top 18,000+ jobs in Puerto Rico area. [105] 61.16% voted for statehood, 33.34% for a sovereign free associated state, and 5.49% for independence. [10] Eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. [103][104] The first question, voted on in August, asked voters whether they wanted to maintain the current status under the territorial clause of the U.S. Constitution. The Colorado forest, named for the large Colorado tree (Cyrilla racemiflora), begins above the tabonuco forest and extends up to about 3,000 ft (910 m). U.S. ships came to surpass Spanish trade and with this also came the exploitation of the island's natural resources. Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty", "U.S. Department of State. The ballot asked one question: Should Puerto Rico be admitted immediately into the Union as a State? Each of these area codes are listed below. [24], Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, and can move freely between the island and the mainland. Across the island in the southwest, the 15 sq mi (39 km2) of dry land at the Guánica Commonwealth Forest Reserve contain over 600 uncommon species of plants and animals, including 48 endangered species and 16 endemic to Puerto Rico. In the latter part of the 19th century, the cuisine of Puerto Rico was greatly influenced by the United States in the ingredients used in its preparation. [184] It was the first non-Roman Catholic Church in the entire Spanish Empire in the Americas.[185][186]. During the latter years of the Roosevelt–Truman administrations, the internal governance of the island was changed in a compromise reached with Luis Muñoz Marín and other Puerto Rican leaders. The second question posed three alternate status options: statehood, independence, or free association. Unirse para conectar Denunciar este perfil Actividad Marta Michelle Colon Recomendado por Rodrick Miller. This great variety of traditions came together to form La Cocina Criolla. As such, they occupied a special place on household altars, where people prayed to them, asked for help, or tried to summon their protection. [344] As of 2007[update], there were 30 TV stations, 125 radio stations and roughly 1 million TV sets on the island. Various other U.S. Supreme Court decisions have held which rights apply in Puerto Rico and which ones do not. In 1993, Commonwealth status won by a plurality of votes (48.6% versus 46.3% for statehood), while the "none of the above" option, which was the Popular Democratic Party-sponsored choice, won in 1998 with 50.3% of the votes (versus 46.5% for statehood). [214][failed verification][215][failed verification] While residing in Puerto Rico, Puerto Ricans cannot vote in U.S. presidential elections, but they can vote in primaries. 81-600), which allowed for a democratic referendum in Puerto Rico to determine whether Puerto Ricans desired to draft their own local constitution. Cities and towns in Puerto Rico are interconnected by a system of roads, freeways, expressways, and highways maintained by the Highways and Transportation Authority under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and patrolled by the Puerto Rico Police Department. The cost of living in Puerto Rico is high and has increased over the past decade. The Constitution of Puerto Rico was formally adopted on July 3, 1952. In the November 1948 election, Muñoz Marín became the first popularly elected governor of Puerto Rico, replacing U.S.-appointed Piñero on January 2, 1949. Puerto Rico Tourism: Tripadvisor has 670,001 reviews of Puerto Rico Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Puerto Rico resource. The capital and most populous city is San Juan. Lying about 75 mi (121 km) north of Puerto Rico in the Atlantic Ocean at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates is the Puerto Rico Trench, the largest and deepest trench in the Atlantic. Die Region Puerto Rico nimmt seit 1981 an diesem Turnier teil. [157], A Pew Research survey indicated an adult literacy rate of 90.4% in 2012 based on data from the United Nations. ", Rivera. In the aftermath, on April 2, 1943, Tydings introduced another bill in Congress calling for independence for Puerto Rico, though it was again defeated.[72]. This was important for the economy, since tourism provides up to 10% of Puerto Rico's GDP, according to Discover Puerto Rico. The Senate, controlled by the Partido Popular Democrático (PPD) and presided by Luis Muñoz Marín, approved the bill that day. Between 1960 and 1990 the census questionnaire in Puerto Rico did not ask about race or ethnicity. The seasons do not change very drastically. [190], By 2014, a Pew Research report, with the sub-title Widespread Change in a Historically Catholic Region, indicated that only 56% of Puerto Ricans were Catholic and that 33% were Protestant; this survey was completed between October 2013 and February 2014.[191][158]. Objections from teaching staff are common, perhaps because many of them are not fully fluent in English. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all that is known about them. After the United States invaded Puerto Rico during the Spanish–American War and the island was ceded to the Americans as a condition of the Treaty of Paris of 1898, writers and poets began to express their opposition to the new colonial rule by writing about patriotic themes. Cable TV subscription services are available and the U.S. Armed Forces Radio and Television Service also broadcast on the island. View Cart: Home | Contact | TOS | Site Map: Area Code Database: ZIP Code Database: ZIP Code Street Maps: Area Code Lookup : Lookup any area code or prefix (NPA/NXX) in our database using our FREE Area Code Finder Below: Area Code (NPA) Prefix (NXX) City: State Abbrev. [189] A 2013 Pew Research survey found that only about 45% of Puerto Rican adults identified themselves as Catholic, 29% as Protestant and 20% as unaffiliated with a religion. In 2008, the archipelago's first unified league, the Puerto Rico Soccer League, was established. Puerto Rico hosted the Pan Am Games in 1979 (officially in San Juan), and The Central American and Caribbean Games were hosted in 1993 in Ponce and in 2010 in Mayagüez. [345], Coordinates: 18°13′20″N 66°25′49″W / 18.2223°N 66.4303°W / 18.2223; -66.4303 (Commonwealth of Puerto Rico), Caribbean island unincorporated territory of the United States of America, "Porto Rico" and "Borinquen" redirect here. Santos depict figures of saints and other religious icons and are made from native wood, clay, and stone. [236], While a state may try an individual for the same crime he/she was tried in federal court, this is not the case in Puerto Rico. The executive branch is headed by the governor, currently Wanda Vázquez Garced. Puerto Rico’s mainland is roughly 35 miles from north to south and 100 miles wide from west to east, making its area about 3,500 square miles. [111][112], The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has an area of 5,320 square miles (13,800 km2), of which 3,420 sq mi (8,900 km2) is land and 1,900 sq mi (4,900 km2) is water. Throughout those years, including present time, all budgets contemplated issuing bonds to cover these projected deficits rather than making structural adjustments. Other private universities include the multi-campus Inter American University, the Pontifical Catholic University, Universidad Politécnica de Puerto Rico, and the Universidad del Sagrado Corazón. [113] Puerto Rico is larger than Delaware and Rhode Island. [55] Enslaved Africans had already begun to be imported to compensate for the native labor loss, but their numbers were proportionate to the diminished commercial interest Spain soon began to demonstrate for the island colony. The Commission, 70p, np, May 22, 1937". Fixed phone numbers in Puerto Rico are comprised of a single country code (+1), and a 100 digit line code. "D.C. Voting Rights: No Representation? It was modified and ratified by the U.S. Congress, approved by President Truman on July 3 of that year, and proclaimed by Gov. campaign was intended to highlight the island's culture and history, making it distinct, different than other Caribbean destinations. In recent years, the population has declined markedly, falling nearly 1% in 2012 and an additional 1% (36,000 people) in 2013 due to a falling birthrate and emigration. West Indies convoys linked Spain to the island, sailing between Cádiz and the Spanish West Indies. [67], William H. Seward, the former Secretary of State under presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, had also stressed the importance of building a canal in Honduras, Nicaragua or Panama. Puerto Rico is enforcing local measures developed by the Puerto Rico Tourism Company (PRTC), alongside U.S. Travel Association (USTA) guidelines, such as social distancing, face coverings in public areas, and a variety of mandates for businesses – including but not limited to reduced capacities and high standards of cleanliness in accordance with CDC and EPA guidelines. The majority of Puerto Ricans (69.7%) identify as Roman Catholic, according to the Pew Research Center. (P.R.) In terms of financial control, almost 9.6%—or about $1.5 billion—of Puerto Rico's central government budget expenses for FY2014 is expected to be spent on debt service. [219] Such a parallel accusation would constitute double jeopardy. In 1947, the U.S. Congress passed the Elective Governor Act, signed by President Truman, allowing Puerto Ricans to vote for their own governor. View our Puerto Rico area code information. [279] This has not always provided a long-term solution. El Yunque is home to more than 240 plants, 26 of which are endemic to the island. Governor Rossello rejected this plan as unjustified and unnecessary. Since Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory (see above) and not a U.S. state, the United States Constitution does not fully enfranchise U.S. citizens residing in Puerto Rico.[212][225]. Coconuts, coffee (brought by the Arabs and Corsos to Yauco from Kafa, Ethiopia), okra, yams, sesame seeds, gandules (pigeon peas in English) sweet bananas, plantains, other root vegetables and Guinea hen, all come to Puerto Rico from Africa. Pueblo v. Tribunal Superior, 92 D.P.R. Three more municipalities were established in the 17th century. The geography of Puerto Rico consists of an archipelago located between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic, west of the Virgin Islands and north of Venezuela. [265] The debt had been increasing during a decade-long recession. On March 12, 1903, the University of Puerto Rico was officially founded, branching out from the "Escuela Normal Industrial", a smaller organization that was founded in Fajardo three years earlier. Because the U.S. federal government operates primarily in English, all Puerto Rican attorneys must be bilingual in order to litigate in English in U.S. federal courts, and litigate federal preemption issues in Puerto Rican courts. [270], In early August 2017, the island's financial oversight board (created by PROMESA) planned to institute two days off without pay per month for government employees, down from the original plan of four days per month; the latter had been expected to achieve $218 million in savings. The "Utuado Uprising" culminated in what is known as the Utuado massacre. These include Miguel Cotto, Félix Trinidad, Wilfred Benítez and Gómez among others. Puerto Rico has one area code split and one area code overlay in service. [107], Puerto Rico held its statehood referendum during the November 3 general elections, and voted to be admitted as the 51st US state. The governor and legislators are elected by popular vote every four years with the last election held in November 2016. Between the dry and wet season, there is a temperature change of around 6 °F (3.3 °C). This sparked an ongoing government-debt crisis after Puerto Rico's general obligation bonds were downgraded to speculative non-investment grade ("junk status") by three credit-rating agencies. [221], Constitutionally, Puerto Rico is subject to the plenary powers of the United States Congress under the territorial clause of Article IV of the U.S. After the U.S. government assumed control of Puerto Rico in 1901, it initiated legal reforms resulting in the adoption of codes of criminal law, criminal procedure, and civil procedure modeled after those then in effect in California. The main mountain range is called "La Cordillera Central" (The Central Range). In 2013 the Government Accountability Office published a report which concluded that "repealing or amending the Jones Act cabotage law might cut Puerto Rico shipping costs" and that "shippers believed that opening the trade to non-U.S.-flag competition could lower costs". Baseball was one of the first sports to gain widespread popularity in Puerto Rico. The population of Puerto Rico has been shaped by initial Amerindian settlement, European colonization, slavery, economic migration, and Puerto Rico's status as unincorporated territory of the United States. [z], One of the most cited contributors to the high cost of living in Puerto Rico is the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, also known as the Jones Act, which prevents foreign-flagged ships from carrying cargo between two American ports, a practice known as cabotage. From the beginning of the country, the colonial administration relied heavily on the industry of enslaved Africans and creole blacks for public works and defenses, primarily in coastal ports and cities, where the tiny colonial population had hunkered down. Amaya Iraolagoitia, Partner, Tax Dept", "Table 5. art. [187], An Associated Press article in March 2014 stated that "more than 70 percent of whom identify themselves as Catholic" but provided no source for this information. In fact, Puerto Rico became the site of the first ecclesiastical province in the Americas in 1504, although it was officially opposed by Ferdinand, then-King of Spain, who wanted the mo… The island is mostly mountainous with large coastal areas in the north and south. "[99], During the 1950s and 1960s, Puerto Rico experienced rapid industrialization, due in large part to Operación Manos a la Obra ("Operation Bootstrap"), an offshoot of FDR's New Deal. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Needless to say that efforts to eradicate its presence in Hawaii is not a popular issue among Puerto Ricans. Puerto Rico has a width of about 110 miles, and a length of approximately 40 miles. Among these was Dr. Manuel A. Alonso, the first Puerto Rican writer of notable importance. [5], Puerto Rican dry forests are dominated by plants in the families Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Myrtaceae. Col. Ab. [234] Residents of Puerto Rico pay into Social Security, and are thus eligible for Social Security benefits upon retirement. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931. The geography of Puerto Rico and its political status are both determining factors on its economic prosperity, primarily due to its relatively small size as an island; its lack of natural resources used to produce raw materials[citation needed], and, consequently, its dependence on imports; as well as its territorial status with the United States, which controls its foreign policy while exerting trading restrictions, particularly in its shipping industry. Nationality in U.S. These seismic events, along with landslides, represent some of the most dangerous geologic hazards in the island and in the northeastern Caribbean. Other studies show Amerindian ancestry in addition to the Taíno. In the professional circuit, Puerto Rico has the third-most boxing world champions and it is the global leader in champions per capita. Puerto Rico lies at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates and is being deformed by the tectonic stresses caused by their interaction. At this site, there are four main life zones, delineated on the basis of temperature and precipitation (Holdridge System), in the Luquillo Mountains: subtropical wet and subtropical rain forests are found at low and mid elevations, lower montane rain and lower montane wet forests at high elevations. This region of the island — comprised of 15 towns, two small islands, and a legendary rainforest — offers scenic views, leisurely beaches, rivers, and quaint food stands to enjoy after a day at the beach. Emigration exceeds immigration. In 1967 Puerto Rico's Legislative Assembly polled the political preferences of the Puerto Rican electorate by passing a plebiscite act that provided for a vote on the status of Puerto Rico. Get San Juan's weather and area codes, time zone and DST. Puerto Rico has representation in all international competitions including the Summer and Winter Olympics, the Pan American Games, the Caribbean World Series, and the Central American and Caribbean Games. Leaders of this independence movement included Ramón Emeterio Betances, considered the "father" of the Puerto Rican independence movement, and other political figures such as Segundo Ruiz Belvis. It was not until 1996 that an area code was established exclusively for Puerto Rico. The increasing number of Atlantic wars in which the Caribbean islands played major roles, like the War of Jenkins' Ear, the Seven Years' War and the Atlantic Revolutions, ensured Puerto Rico's growing esteem in Madrid's eyes. Traditionally, santos were seen as messengers between the earth and Heaven. The main island of Puerto Rico is the smallest and most eastern of the Greater Antilles. Cayetano Coll y Toste was another Puerto Rican historian and writer. [41], The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland. [43] The Ortoiroid were displaced by the Saladoid, a culture from the same region that arrived on the island between 430 and 250 BCE.[42]. [87][88][89], In 1950, the U.S. Congress approved Public Law 600 (P.L. Alejandro Tapia y Rivera, also known as the Father of Puerto Rican Literature, ushered in a new age of historiography with the publication of The Historical Library of Puerto Rico. [79] The attack on unarmed protesters was reported by U.S.

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