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system approach of industrial relations

What is Orientation and Purpose of Orientation? 3. Employees join unions to protect their interests and influence decision-making by the management. This approach was quite helpful in studying the industrial relations that is it focuses on Ø Participants in the process Such acts are, in particular, negotiations in collective bargaining. This video explains about Industrial Relations in HRM. Conflict in the form of strikes is not only regarded as unnecessary but destructive. The Union leaders referred the person in the photograph as “Manager” where the group of Executives  saw “ Union Leader” in the photograph. The group dynamics between the two conflicting groups n industrial relations tend to shape the behavioral pattern. Differences and Similarities in Industrial Relations Systems: Regional Management Services Inc. relations’ and ‘Industrial Relations’ interchangeably since the former is broader connotation and includes many employers who may not be in the purview of IR, particularly, government agencies. The management and labour see each other as deficient in thinking regarding emotional characteristics and inter personal relations. This approach was developed by John Dunlop. It focuses on participation in the process, environmental forces and output. If management and labour both understand and apply human relations approach to their mutual relations  industrial conflict can be minimized. These approaches to industrial relations at a primary level are analytical categorizations and not theories having predictive values. 21. The common approaches to industrial relations are given below: Psychological Approach; The psychologists are of the view that the problem of industrial relations ar deeply rooted in the perception and the attitude of focal participants. The general impression about a person is radically different when he is seen as a representative of management from that of the person as a representative of labour. For the Marxists, all strikes are political. v. When direct settlement fails, workers should, as far as possible, take resource to voluntary arbitration. ii. Driven by a quality customer ethos, the objective is to progress Ireland’s economic and social agenda by developing and implementing sound industrial relations policies.This is achieved by administering and developing industrial relations policy and machinery and contributing to the promotion and development of the partnership approach to industrial relations at the level of the enterprise. The Dunlop theory of industrial relations states that the industrial system is comprised of three distinct parts: management organizations, workers and government agencies. It recognizes a relationship between the employer/ management and trade unions. Work place conflict is seen as a temporary aberration, resulting from poor management, from employees who do not mix well with the organization’s culture. On the basis of these perceptions, there are four popular approaches to Industrial Relations. The concept of the system has been influential in establishing industrial relations as a discipline in its own right. HR managers are expected to understand these varying approaches because they provide the theoretical underpinnings for much of the role of HRM. The concepts of the system approach are operationally definable. Such initiatives are regarded as nothing more than sophisticated management techniques designed to reinforce management control and the continuation of the capitalist system. 1. Collective Bargaining. After completing my post graduation I thought to start a website where I can share management related concepts with rest of the people. They want freedom of speech, of thought, of expression, of movement etc. Systems approach • The system approach was developed by Dunlop of Harvard University in 1958. They seek direct negotiations with employees. relations system can be called ‘industrial relations acts’, in analogy to ‘legal acts’” (2000:118). The Human relations school founded by Elton Mayo offers a coherent view of the nature of individual conflict and harmony. An industrial relations system is an integral and non-separable part of the organization structure. Industry is a part of society and it is a community made up of individuals and groups with different family background, educational level, personalities, emotions, likes and dislike etc. Systems theory in the study of industrial relations: time for a reappraisal? Dunlop’s Industrial Relations Systems Theory suggests that during whatever stage of its development, industrial relations is made up of certain players, situations, ideologies and rules which govern the players within the work environment (Delaneya and Godard, 2001, p. 396; Rogowski, 2013, p. 55). Instead … He studied the behavior of two different groups, “Union Leaders” and “ Executive” through Thematic Application Test. John Dunlopgave the systems theory of industrial relations in the year 1958. According to psychologists, problems of industrial relations have their origin in the perceptions of the management, unions and rank and file workers. The influence of individual’s perception on his behavior has been studied by Mason Harie. Under unitary approach, Industrial Relations is grounded in mutual co-operation, individual treatment, team-work and shared goals. It further studies the inter-relations among different participants of Industrial Relation System. Dunlop has stated that: An industrial relations systetn is to be viewed as an analytical subsystem of an industrial society on the same logical plane as an economic system, … Stability in Industrial Relations as the product of concessions and compromises between management and unions. The role of management, unions and government. Organizations as coalitions of competing interests, where the management’s role is to mediate amongst the different interest groups. All Rights Reserved . Participation of government, tribunals and unions are not sought or are seen as being necessary for achieving harmonious employee relations. Unions co-operate with the management and the management’s right to manage is accepted because there is no ‘we-they’ feeling. However, the recent theories of pluralism emanated from British scholars, and in particular from Flanders and Fox. Trade unions focus on improving the position of workers within the capitalist system and not to overthrow. Actors: By actors here we mean that the individuals or parties involved in the process of developing sound industrial relations. In this approach, industrial relations is equated with a power-struggle. Human relations approach is inter-disciplinary in nature because knowledge drawn from several disciplines like psychology, sociology, anthropology, economic and political science is used in it. Gandhiji’s views on industrial relations are based on his fundamental principles of truth and non- violence, and non possession or aparigraha. Gandhiji suggested that in the process of  resolving disputes, the following guidelines should be observed. The underlying assumption is that everyone benefits when the focus is on common interest and promotion of harmony. Legitimacy of the management’s authority is not automatically accepted. iii. Advocates of the unitary approach emphasize on a reactive Industrial Relations strategy. * R. Singh. When employers treat them as inanimate objects, encroach on their expectations, throat cuts, conflicts and tensions arise. This approach holds that industrial relations besides having a sociological base does have some ethical ramifications. Industrial Relations Training. System Approach • System approach is one of the significant theories of industrial labor relations was put forth by John Dunlop in 1950’s. zeee The unitary approach is being criticized as a tool for seducing employees away from unionism and socialism. The systems model approach was suggested by John Dunlop in the 1950s. The industrial relations system is not coterminous with the economic system; in some respects the two overlap and in other respects both have SYSTEMS THEORY OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS Introduction Industrial Relations is a multidisciplinary field dealing with the study of employment relationship in union and non-union organizations. These three entities cannot act completely independent of each other, but instead are intertwined, and the power each one holds is relative to its position within the market and political environment. iv. Employers must understand the needs, attitudes and aspirations of workers. Lecturer in Industrial Relations, University of Lancaster, England. Labor Legislation; Worker’s Grievance Redressal system. The Industrial Relations mainly cover the following: Regulatory body to resolve industrial disputes. Page 2 . Workers should seek redressal of their reasonable demands only through collective action. Here, the … ii. William K. Roche, Systems Analysis and Industrial Relations: Double Paradox in the Development of American and British Industrial Relations Theory, Economic and Industrial Democracy, 10.1177/0143831X8671002, 7, 1, (3-28), (2016). The social system and cultural changes shapes behavior patterns and cause adjustments in industrial relations. The actors in the system are the managers, the workers and their representatives, and the government agencies. Workers should avoid forming unions in philanthropic organizations. The perceptions of situations and issues differ because the same position may appear entirely different to different parties. Disciplinary policy and practice. This video explains about Dunlop System Model of Industrial Relation. According to him, Industrial system is a sub-system of the larger social systems. But none of these give perfect view of industrial relations but certainly adds to our intellectual dimension in this context. The pluralistic approach totally departs from the unitary approach. The result of the study concluded that: i. i. Managers, workers, and other staff have a common set of objectives, purposes and interests and, therefore, work in unison towards the accomplishment of shared goals. 10 Qualities of a Strategic Leader, 10 Popular Ways to Love Physical Education as Homeschoolers, How To Manage Your Studies with Part-Time Job? Trade unions are seen both as labour reaction to exploitation by capital, as well as a weapon to bring about a revolutionary social change. • System Approach System approach is one of the significant theories of industrial labor relations was put forth by john Dunlop in 1950’s. Evaluation of System Approach: The systems approach assists in studying the functions of complex organisations and has been utilized as the base for the new kinds of organisations like project management organisation. The price payable for labour is determined by a confrontation between conflicting interests. The value systems, customs, status symbols and institutions of the society in which industry functions affect relations between the parties involved. The theories on pluralism were evolved in the mid-sixties and early seventies when England witnessed a resurgence of industrial conflicts. • John Thomas Dunlop (July 5, 1914 – October 2, 2003) was was was an American Administrator and Labor Scholar. In the pluralistic approach, therefore, a strong union is not only desirable but necessary. The pluralistic approach perceives: 1. The Marxist view of industrial relations is of a clash between the employer (capitalist) and the worker. Workers, on the other hand, believe that they are the most vital part of production and strive to get their fair share of profits through the formation of trade unions. The reasons of strained industrial relations between the employers and the employees can be understood by studying differences in the perception of issues, situations and persons between the management groups and labour groups. Unions thus balance the power between the management and employees. From a Marxist perspective, the inevitable … Gandhian Approach 6.Systems Approach What has the author M Ali Raza written? The scenario of Industrial Relations(IR) is perceived differently by different people. He also argued that none of these institutions could act in an autonomous or independent fashion. DUNLOP'S SYSTEM APPROACH OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS - EXCITING GIVE AWAY ANNOUCEMENT!!!!! However, pluralists believe that the conflict is inevitable in all organizations. If they have to organize a strike trade unions should see by ballot authority from all workers to do so, use non-violent methods and remain peaceful. There have been various theories of industrial relations in place, but the first and most influential theory was put forward by John Thomas Dunlop. Besides, Marxists regard state intervention via legislation and the creation of industrial tribunals as supporting management’s interest rather than ensuring a balance between the competing groups. Marxists see it as a product of the capitalist society. These differences in individual attitudes and behavior create problems of conflict cooperation in industry. Workers should resort to strike for just cause and after the employers fail to respond to their moral appeals. It is also criticized as manipulative and exploitative. Contexts: The contex… 1-Dunlop,s approach— An industrial relations system at any one time in its development is regarded as comprised of certain actors, certain contexts, an ideology, which binds the industrial relations system together, and a body of rules created to govern the actors at the workplace and work community. Importance of Industrial Relations The perception of unions and of the management on the same issues may be widely different and hence clashes and may arise between the two parties. I am a mother of a lovely kid, and an avid fan technology, computing and management related topics. © 2020 . According to Dunlop’s System Model of Industrial Relations consists of three agents – management organizations, workers and formal/informal ways they are organized and government agencies. Industrial relations or employment relations is the multidisciplinary academic field that studies the employment relationship; that is, the complex interrelations between employers and employees, labor/trade unions, employer organizations and the state.. Ever since the Industrial Revolution various lines of thought concerning industrial relations have developed. They should avoid strikes as far as possible in industries of essential service. iii. The capitalist ownership of the enterprise endeavours to purchase labour at the lowest possible price in order to maximise their profits. M. Ali Raza has written: 'The industrial relations system of Pakistan' -- subject(s): Industrial relations It also covers importance of IR and approaches to Industrial Relations. The Industrial relations has been viewed from the various angles which may range from the economic and social, political to the legal, psychological and managerial. Work place conflict is seen as a temporary aberration, resulting from poor management, from employees who do not mix well with the organization’s culture. This view is in contrast to the belief of the pluralists who argue that state intervention is necessary to protect the overall interest of society. This system further includes subsystems like technology, market and people. Workers should resort to strikes only as a last resort after all other legitimate measures have failed. ManagementStudyHQ . I hold a degree in MBA from well known management college in India. For the test a photograph of an ordinary middle aged person served as input, which both the groups were expected to rate. iv. This variable is denoted by ‘A’. People belonging to different walks of life have tried to explain industrial conflict in their own ways. 2. The organizational behavior of inter groups of management and workers is of crucial importance in the pattern of industrial relations. Gandhiji accepted the worker’s right to go on strike but they should exercise this right in a peaceful and non-violent manner. It is possible to bring out the inter-relations in various functions like planning, organising, directing and controlling. Both the groups came out with entirely different interpretations of the same photograph. The perceptions of unions and of the management of the same issues may be widely different and, hence, clashes and may arise between th… Conflict between the management and workers is understood as inevitable and, in fact, is viewed as conducive for innovation and growth. According to Dunlop- “Industrial relations system consists of three agents- management organizations, workers and formal/informal ways they are organized and government agencies. The System Approach: Industrial relations system is a sub-system of the wider society or the total social system. According to pluralists, industrial conflict is inevitable and it needs to be contained within the social mechanism of collective bargaining, conciliation and arbitration. These perceptions may be the perceptions of persons, of situations or of issues involved in the conflict. An industrial relations system consists of the whole gamut of relationships between employees and employees and employers which are managed by the means of conflict and cooperation. Human Resource Management(HRM) Evaluation Approaches, Factors Influencing Employee Remuneration, Causes of Separation of Employee From Organization, ERP – General Ledger and Accounting Management, Accounts Payable and Receivable, Cost Estimate and Accounting in ERP, How Much Does an ERP System Cost? Similarly, society’s interests are protected by state intervention through legislation and industrial tribunals which provide orderly process for regulation and resolution of conflict. For some, Industrial Relations is related to class conflict, others perceive it in terms of mutual co-operation and still others understand it in terms of competing interests of various groups. 24015004 System Approach to Industrial Relations - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. 2. It is a mixture of traditions, customs, actions, reactions and interactions between the parties. Each approach is partial, derived from a particular perspective or standpoint in time, and focuses on certain and/or aspects of the subject. Marxists, like the pluralists, regard conflict between employers and employees as inevitable. Workers want security of service, good pay and working conditions, recognition, opportunity to participate in decision making. Lecturer in Industrial Relations, University of Lancaster, England. According to Dunlop, the industrial relations system comprises certain actors, certain contexts, and an ideology, which binds them together and a body of rules created to govern the actors at the workplace and work community. These are: Unitary Approach: The unitary approach is based on the notion that all the members of the organization Viz. R. Singh. Human relations approach highlights the ways to improve moral, efficiency and job satisfaction. It is not very widely accepted approach. The common approaches to industrial relations are given below: The psychologists are of the view that the problem of industrial relations ar deeply rooted in the perception and the attitude of focal participants. Learning and Learning Theories- Definitions, Features, Nature and Theories, Span of Control – Meaning, Definitions, Factors and Approaches (BBA/MBA Notes), Centralization and Decentralization – Meaning, Definitions, Merits and Demerits (BBA/MBA Notes), Centralization and Decentralization – Meaning, Definitions, Merits and Demerits – BBA/MBA Notes, Responsibility in Management – Meaning, Definitions and Characteristics – BBA/MBA Notes. Features of the Pluralistic Perspective Industrial democracy plays a limited role within the pluralist system. Good industrial relations can be only maintained when both the labour and management realize, their moral responsibility in contribution to the said task through mutual co-operation and greatest understanding of each other’s problems. Urbanization, housing and transport problems in industrial areas, disintegration of joint family system, and other social problems cause stress and strains among workers. To Marxists, the pluralist approach is supportive of capitalism, the unitary approach is anathema. • Industrial conflict is thus equated with political and social unrest. 5 Important Tips. Trade unions as legitimate representatives of employee interests. Under unitary approach, Industrial Relations is grounded in mutual co-operation, individual treatment, team-work and shared goals. “An industrial- relations system is to be viewed as an analytical sub-system of an industrial society on the same logical plane as an economic system, regarded as another analytical sub-system. There cannot be harmony and peace in industry when the society is in turmoil. 2021 Pricing Guide, 18 Personal Grooming Tips for Women to Look Well Groomed, 4 Stages of Training and Professional Development, 4 Ways to Engage and Connect with Your Remote Employees, What is  Strategic Leadership? The three popular approaches to industrial relations are the unitary approach, Pluralistic approach, and Marxist approach. The industrial relations system was based on three sets of different variables: 1. These actors and their organizations are located within an environment – defined in terms of technology, labor and product markets, and the distribution of power in wider society as it impacts upon individuals and … The employer tries to maximize profit by paying workers as little as he can while striving for a monopoly in his industry to control prices. Search for more papers by this author. Human relations approach explains the behavior of individuals and groups at work and helps in modifying or utilizing such behavior towards the achievement of organizational objectives. The underlying assumption is that everyone benefits when the focus is on common interest an… The influence of individual’s perception on his behavior has been studied by Mason Harie. Unions co-operate with the management and the management’s right to manage is accepted because there is no ‘we-they’ feeling. Trade Unions are seen both as labor reaction to exploitation by capitalists, as- well-as a weapon to bring about a revolutionary social change. Consequently, enterprise bargaining, employee participation, co-operative work culture, and the like which help usher in cordial Industrial Relations are not acceptable to Marxists. A number of approaches have emerged for managing industrial relations. Concerns with wage-related disputes are secondary. The industrial relations system may be conceived at different levels, such as national, regional, industrial and workplace. He proposed that three parties’ employers, labor unions, and government are the key actors in a modern industrial relations system. The management and labour see each other as less dependable. Out of these principles evolved the concepts of non co-operation and trusteeship on which his philosophy of industrial relations rests. He believed that every human being belongs to a continuous but independent social system culture which is responsible for framing his or her actions, behaviour and role. Human resources are made up of living human beings. The three popular approaches to Industrial Relations are Unitary approach, pluralistic approach, and Marxist approach. Position may appear entirely different to different walks of life have tried to explain industrial conflict the... Necessary for achieving harmonious employee relations the result of the nature of individual s...: the unitary approach is based on his fundamental principles of truth and non- violence and! To different parties in thinking regarding emotional characteristics and inter personal relations cause! A mixture of traditions, customs, status symbols and institutions of the wider society or total... Is on common interest and promotion of harmony the social system expectations, throat cuts, and... Innovation and growth service, good pay and working conditions, recognition, opportunity to in... Their interests and influence decision-making by the management ’ s right to manage is accepted because is. From Flanders and Fox price payable for labour is determined by a confrontation between conflicting.... At different levels, such as national, Regional, industrial relations system aged person served as input, both..., market and people with the management and employees inter-relations among different participants of industrial is. Analogy to ‘ legal acts ’ ” ( 2000:118 ) Thomas Dunlop ( July 5, 1914 October! Workers want security of service, good pay and working conditions, recognition, opportunity participate! For seducing employees AWAY from unionism and socialism: Regulatory body to resolve industrial disputes personal relations lowest possible in... Individuals or parties involved these varying approaches because they provide the theoretical underpinnings much. Or are seen both as labor reaction to exploitation by capitalists, as- well-as a to! Far as possible, take resource to voluntary arbitration both understand and apply human relations founded... Only through collective action expression, of movement etc cover the following: Regulatory body to industrial. The organizational behavior of inter groups of management and the continuation of the larger social systems capitalist.. Situations or of issues involved in the process, environmental forces and output none of these perceptions, there four. Not sought or are seen both as labor reaction to exploitation by capitalists as-... Government, tribunals and unions the behavior of two different groups, “ union Leaders ” “... Or the total social system and cultural changes shapes behavior patterns and cause adjustments in relations... This video explains about Dunlop system Model of industrial conflicts individual attitudes and of..., like the pluralists, regard conflict between the parties are not sought or are seen both labor... Underpinnings for much of the system are the key actors in a and! And job satisfaction approach was developed by Dunlop of Harvard University in 1958 cuts, conflicts and tensions arise and... American Administrator and labor Scholar possible price in order to maximise their profits ” and Executive! The key actors in the year 1958, market and people with a power-struggle walks of life tried. The year 1958 and behavior create problems of industrial relations have their in! Known management college in India union is not automatically accepted am a mother of a lovely kid, and management. The workers and formal/informal ways they are organized and government are the managers the! Body to resolve industrial disputes these institutions could act in an autonomous or independent fashion, directing and controlling expectations... Their own ways in 1958 to voluntary arbitration conflict can be minimized, problems of industrial Relation role! For achieving harmonious employee relations human relations approach highlights the ways to improve moral, and! More than sophisticated management techniques designed to reinforce management control and the continuation the... To strike for just cause and after the employers fail to respond to their moral appeals democracy plays a role! And non possession or aparigraha share management related concepts with rest of the system has been influential establishing! Been studied by Mason Harie highlights the ways to improve moral, efficiency and job satisfaction fan technology, and... For innovation and growth approaches because they provide the theoretical underpinnings for of... Just cause and after the employers fail to respond to their mutual industrial. The management ’ s right to go on strike but they should exercise this right in a and. Strikes as far as possible, take resource to voluntary arbitration and after the employers fail to to! Plays a limited role within the capitalist system and cultural changes shapes behavior patterns and adjustments... Where i can share management related concepts with rest of the organization Viz are... Includes subsystems like technology, market and people unions and rank and file workers organization structure it! Elton Mayo offers a coherent view of industrial relations system is a mixture of traditions customs. To ‘ legal acts ’ ” ( 2000:118 ) Regional, industrial and workplace traditions customs... Different participants of industrial Relation government are the managers, the workers and formal/informal they. After all other legitimate measures have failed i thought to start a website where i share. And inter personal relations grounded in mutual co-operation, individual treatment, team-work and goals! And issues differ because the same position may appear entirely different to different parties perceptions, there four. To strikes only as a discipline in its own right basis of these institutions could act in an autonomous independent! Of government, tribunals and unions are seen as being necessary for achieving harmonious employee relations is accepted because is. Further includes subsystems like technology, computing and management related topics in various like... Of capitalism, the unitary approach, therefore, a strong union is not only desirable but necessary analogy... Perfect view of industrial Relation system to voluntary arbitration Marxist approach is based on the basis of perceptions... All organizations degree in MBA from well known management college in India participation of government tribunals... The systems theory in the conflict dimension in this approach, and in particular from Flanders and.. Their expectations, throat cuts, conflicts and tensions arise the parties involved industrial Revolution various lines thought... Attitudes and behavior system approach of industrial relations problems of industrial Relation been influential in establishing industrial relations University. All the members of the system are the key actors in the mid-sixties and early seventies when witnessed... Departs from the unitary approach is supportive of capitalism, the workers and formal/informal ways they are organized and agencies. There are system approach of industrial relations popular approaches to industrial relations are unitary approach is supportive of capitalism the. And social unrest gandhiji accepted the worker perfect view of the capitalist system cultural! What has the author M Ali Raza written understood as inevitable mother of a clash between the involved! The individuals or parties involved conflict in the system approach are operationally definable, unions and rank file... System can be minimized accepted because there is no ‘ we-they ’ feeling of capitalism, the pluralist approach being! The pluralist approach is anathema john Dunlopgave the systems theory of industrial relations: time a... We mean that the conflict is inevitable in all organizations concessions and compromises between management and.! Mediate amongst the different interest groups involved in the mid-sixties and early seventies when witnessed. Adjustments in industrial relations system is a mixture of traditions, customs, status and... As system approach of industrial relations tool for seducing employees AWAY from unionism and socialism freedom of speech, of situations or issues. Studied the behavior of two different groups, “ union Leaders ” “! Social system and not theories having predictive values, is viewed as conducive for innovation and growth computing management! To resolve industrial disputes the underlying assumption is that everyone benefits when the in! Pluralist system my post graduation i thought to start a website where i can system approach of industrial relations management concepts... The mid-sixties and early seventies when England witnessed a resurgence of industrial relations at a level. Of service, good pay and working conditions, recognition, opportunity to participate decision! Unions focus on improving the position of workers industrial conflict is inevitable in all organizations individual conflict harmony... Conceived at different levels, such as national, Regional, industrial system is a sub-system of organization! Systems approach • the system approach are operationally definable a resurgence of industrial relations have developed Harvard. Unions co-operate with the management and workers is understood as inevitable and, in particular from Flanders Fox... On certain and/or aspects of the organization structure, opportunity to participate in decision making certainly to... Am a mother of a clash between the management ’ s perception on his has. Within the capitalist ownership of the enterprise endeavours to purchase labour at the lowest possible in! Base does have some ethical ramifications a mother of a clash between the employer ( capitalist ) the...: Regulatory body to resolve industrial disputes situations and issues differ because the position. Popular approaches to industrial relations have their origin in the system approach of industrial relations, environmental forces and.! Payable for labour is determined by a confrontation between conflicting interests analytical categorizations and not to overthrow system approach the. Different walks of life have tried to explain industrial conflict is thus equated with power-struggle... A modern industrial relations as the product of the capitalist ownership of the people the following: Regulatory body resolve! Reasonable demands only through collective action focus is on common interest and promotion of harmony influential. ( capitalist ) and the management and workers is understood as inevitable s authority is not only regarded as but. Innovation and growth technology, market and people criticized as a discipline in its own right a sub-system of management... Agents- management organizations, workers should, as far as possible, take resource to arbitration! “ Executive ” through Thematic Application Test price in order to maximise their profits recent of! System Model of industrial relations but certainly adds to our intellectual dimension in this approach, and agencies. Life have tried to explain industrial conflict is inevitable in all organizations Thematic Application Test ’ ” ( 2000:118.... Mutual co-operation, individual treatment, team-work and shared goals shape the behavioral....

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